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Science 

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FY 63 - FY 77 












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US ARMY FOREIGN SCIENCE AND 
TECHNOLOGY CENTER 

UNIT HISTORY 

1 August 1962 through 30 September 1977 

INDEX 

Chapter Page 

GENERAL 1 

ORGANIZATION, FY 1963 I 3 

FY 1964 and FY 1965 II 5 

FY 1966 and FY 1967 Ill 7 

FY 1968 and FY 1969 IV 9 

FY 1970 and FY 1971 V 11 

FY 1972 and FY 1973- VI 15 

FY 1974 and FY 1975 VII 17 

FY 1976, FY 197T, and FY 1977 i VIII 19 



GENERAL 

The United States Army Foreign Science and Technology Center (FSTC) is a separate field 
activity under the operating control of* the Director, Development and Engineering 
Directorate, Headquarters, US Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command 
(DAROOM). The FSTC general mission is to provide all-source worldwide foreign 
intelligence to meet the requirements of DARCOM, Department of the Army, and 
Department of Defense elements. 

Since its organization in 1962 the FSTC mission has remained relatively 
unchanged. 



One FSTC division, the Field Support Division, is located at Aberdeen Proving Ground, 
Maryland. This division was created from resources of the Scientific and Technical 
Information Team— CONUS and the Foreign Technical Intelligence Office, an element of 
the US Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. 

Since becoming an active US Army element, FSTC has undergone four major 
reorganizations and has occupied four different buildings ). These 

four locations, in order of movement, were Building A, Arlington Hall Station, Arlington, 
Virginia; the Munitions Building, Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC; Building T-7 at 
Gravelly Point, Washington, DC; and finally the Federal Office Building, Charlottesville, 
Virginia 

To provide a better understanding of the basic FSTC mission, which is to produce scientific 
and technical intelligence on foreign ground forces, an explanation of the concepts of 
operations is provided in and an explanation of tasking procedures is provided in 



1 
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CHAPTER I - ORGANIZATION, FY 1963 

The increasing emphasis placed on technological research and development since World 
War II, and the establishment of the United States Army Materiel Command brought about 
the reorganization of the Army's technical intelligence resources. 

Prior to 1962 the individual technical services, i.e., Signal, Ordnance, Quartermaster, 
Engineer, Chemical, etc., operated independently, utilizing their own intelligence offices and 
facilities to meet their own special requirements, As a prelude to eventual centralization of 
the Army's technical intelligence resources, the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence 
(ACSI), Department of the Army (DA), entered into an agreement to centralize the working 
element of the Assistant Chief of Staffs Technical Intelligence Division and most of the 
technical services intelligence offices. The new offices were located at Arlington Hall 
Station. This action was taken during the last part of the 1950s and proved to be most 
beneficial when the actual merger of these resources took place a few years later. 

In the post Sputnik years, during the planning stages of the general Army reorganization, 
the question arose as to where administratively the Army's technical intelligence resources 
belonged— under ACSI, DA, under the newly organized Defense Intelligence Agency, or in 
the proposed Army Materiel Command (AMC). The decision to place the Army's scientific 
and technical intelligence resources under the Army Materiel Command was based on the 
need for intelligence on foreign research and development activities, to prevent 
technological surprise. (The Air Force Materiel Command and its subordinate Foreign 
Technology Division and the Army's recently reorganized missile development activities 
served as models for this new organization.) 

During the planning stages of the Army reorganization, ACSI supervised an ad hoc 
committee charged with developing a centralized technical intelligence agency. They 
selected the name Foreign Science and Technology Center and began organizing functional 
elements along the lines of the original technical intelligence offices. Thus, the Combat 
Materiel Division was created from the former Ordnance Intelligence Office; the 
Communications and Electronics Division from the Signal Intelligence Office; the Atomic, 
Biological, Chemical Division from the Chemical Intelligence Office; and the General 
Equipment and Transport Division from the Engineer and Quartermaster Intelligence 
Offices. For the most part, ACSI, DA, personnel went into the Weapon Systems Office, 
Basic Sciences Office, and the Missile and Space Division. Support and administrative 
personnel were placed in the Support Division. 



On 1 August 1962 the Foreign Science and Technology Center was established as a Class II 
activity under the command jurisdiction of Headquarters, United States Army Materiel 
Command. The authority was General Order No. 57, Headquarters, Department of the 
Army, dated 27 September 1962, and General Order No. 10, Headquarters, US Army 
Materiel Command, dated 17 August 1962. 

The Foreign Science and Technology Center began operation with "hardware" oriented 
personnel from the technical services, where emphasis had been on weapon characteristics. 
Colonel Harrison Hardin was appointed the Commanding Officer and the unit remained at 
Arlington Hall Station. Colonel Hardin began melding FSTC into a single cohesive unit, 
uniting the library and support services, developing a management system to resolve 
jurisdictional responsibilities, and developing standard operating procedures. 

As with any newly formed organization, the Foreign Science and Technology Center 
experienced its share of problems during the early stages of its operation. The orderly 
development of the Center was delayed by personnel cuts, hiring freezes, and conflicts over 
jurisdictional responsibilities. The lack of full-time civilian personnel specialists delayed the 
recruitment process, forcing FSTC to operate at about 75% of the 363 civilians authorized. 

At the end of the fiscal year a total of 51 "hardcover" studies had been produced, and 
FSTC was notified that they would be relocated to the Munitions Building on Constitution 
Avenue, Washington, DC. 



CHAPTER II - FY 1964 and FY 1965 

FSTC moved to the Munitions Building. Production tasking procedures changed, a new 
commanding officer was appointed, and the personnel problems continued. 

Following the notice that FSTC would be relocated to the Munitions Building, many 
personnel started looking for o'.her employment, adding to the already critical problems of 
recruiting and retaining personnel. The move also created security problems not present at 
Arlington Hall. Controlled access to the Munitions Building was maintained only during 
non-duty hours, thus internal security procedures had to be changed. A* movement 
committee was established under the direction of the Support Division Chief, 
Dr. Bernard Lieb, and planning for the move began. Although no records from the move 
were retained, it is known that only a minor disruption in production occurred. The move 
was made during off-duty hours, and persoimel reported to the Munitions Building on the 
morning after their move was scheduled. However, considerable difficulty was encountered 
in moving some of the heavier equipment into the building. The assigned floor space was 
inadequate from both a working and a security aspect. 

On 1 September 1964 Colonel Hardin retired from the service. His replacement was 
Colonel Francis C. Fitzpatrick, who assumed command of the Foreign Science and 
Technology Center on 12 October 1964. 

During FY 64, 59 "hardcover" studies were produced and 353 "unscheduled, quick 
reaction" requirements were answered. This represented about 65% of the scheduled 
production requirements. A backlog in the support area continued due to personnel 
shortages. In FY 65 only 51 "hardcover" studies were published while 548 "unscheduled, 
quick reaction" tasks were completed. 

During these years it became apparent that the original organization required some revision, 
particularly in the support area. Several plans wtre drawn up and the matter was discussed 
with AMC Headquarters. 



5 
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CHAPTER IH - FY 1966 and FY 1967 

During FY 66 and FY 67 the Foreign Science and Technology Center underwent a major 
reorganization. Production of "hardcover" studies showed a sharp increase, but staffing 
problems continued to plague the Center. A new Commanding Officer assumed command of 
the Center, and the FSTC responsibilities and missions took on greater dimensions. 

A continuous backlog of work in the support area caused most of the production delays 
experienced by the Center during this period. To alleviate this backlog a new Table of 
Distribution and Allowances (TDA) was prepared ); three directorates were 

established and the former support division was reorganized. Staff offices were established 
to provide needed support and new branches were added to accommodate new tasking 
requirements being levied by DIA, Some of the changes were implemented immediately and 
others were phased in as personnel became available. The Center was authorized its own 
Civilian Personnel Office which became operational on 1 July 1967. The Plans and 
Operations Office was established on 1 August 1967. 

The production of "hardcover" studies directed by DIA increased from 51 in FY 65 to 82 
in FY 66. This trend continued in FY 67, when 95 studies were produced. Unscheduled, 
quick reaction requirements increased from 384 in FY 66 to 466 in FY 67. This relatively 
low number of unscheduled requirements allowed analysts to devote the major portion of 
their time to programmed production. During this period, about two-thirds of all 
unscheduled requirements were levied on the "Combat Materiel Division to supply 
information on equipment being used by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese. 

On 30 March 1967 Colonel Fitzpatrick ended his tour with FSTC and was replaced by the 
Executive Officer, Colonel Gilbert M. Payne, who served as the Commanding Officer until 
30 November 1967. On 1 December 1967 Colonel Garth Stevens assumed command. 



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CHAPTER IV - FY 1968 and FY 1969 

As the new Commanding Officer, Colonel Stevens began a vigorous campaign to publicize 
the Foreign Science and Technology Center's capabilities to support the Army's research 
and development activities. Recruitment efforts by the newly organized Civilian Personnel 
Office were most successful, and a sizeable increase in unscheduled, quick reaction 
requirements was experienced. 

Shortly after assuming command, Colonel Stevens personally visited many . installations 
throughout the country publicizing FSTC. In addition, a more comprehensive briefing 
program was developed and briefings were presented at all levels of the Defense Department. 
One FSTC analyst, Mr. Harold Johnson, appeared on the CBS Evening News in the spring of 
1968 and presented a demonstration of the weaponry then in use in Viet Nam. A new 
biweekly publication, the "Scientific and Technical Intelligence Summary," started in 
January 1968 was disseminated throughout AMC, and to various members of the 
intelligence community. The success of these various actions was noted by the sharp 
upswing of unscheduled, quick reaction requirements, which increased from 466 in FY 67 
to 928 in FY 68 and to 1725 in FY 69. This increase had a direct effect on the publication 
of programmed studies, which dropped from 95 in FY 67 to 80 in FY 68 and to 72 in 
FY 69. 

After becoming fully staffed, the Civilian Personnel Office launched an extensive 
recruitment campaign the success of which is evidenced by the increase in personnel during 
the first 6 months of 1968. On 30 June 1968, 354 civilian employees were on the rolls, an 
increase of 73 over the 30 June 1967 figure. In addition, a spectacular reduction was noted 
in the civilian turnover rate. Because of the personnel problems FSTC had experienced since 
being organized, the agency was excused from the hiring freeze imposed during the summer 
of 1968. 

No major reorganization took place during these two years. TDAs were prepared and 
submitted primarily to adjust to authorized strengths 



9 
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CHAPTER V - FY 1970 and FY 1971 

FY 1970 started with the rumor that the Foreign Science and Technology Center was going 
to be relocated outside the Metropolitan DC area. This soon proved to be fact— not 
fiction— and the personnel situation became most unstable. Programmed production 
dropped to an all time low, while unscheduled, quick reaction requests reached an all time 
high. 

On 13 March 1970 FSTC was informed by GSA that the Office of Management and Budget 
had directed that the Center be relocated to the Federal Office Building in 
Charlottesville .Virginia, 120 miles south of Washington. This move was to be completed by 
October 1970. Although no mention was made in the initial notification, FSTC was directed 
to make an interim move to Building T-7, Gravelly Point, starting 13 April 1970. 

The estimated minimum increased costs for the move to Building T-7 were $389,000 in 
direct costs and $376,000 in indirect costs. The move to Building T-7 was expected to have 
a major impact on production. The disruption of the move would reduce operating 
efficiency, and many support activities would have to be suspended because it would be too 
expensive to establish them on a temporary basis. The FSTC Production Plan called for the 
completion of 154 studies and contributions, 92 of which would require a data search 
during the May-August period. The inevitable reduction in the library's efficiency during 
this period was expected to produce a critical production lag. Despite his urgent plea, 
however, Colonel Stevens was not able to prevent the' interim move. 

A preliminary moving schedule was established and the main part of the move was 
conducted during the third week of April. Space for some personnel and equipment was 
obtained in Charlottesville, and special equipment that could not be used in Building T-7 
was stored elsewhere in the DC area. The move was completed on 24 April, 4 days ahead of 
schedule. The transition was accomplished with a minimum of delay and confusion, due 
primarily to the meticulously planned moving operation and the willing cooperation of all 
personnel involved. 

Several anticipated problems surfaced as a result of the interim move. With few exceptions 
the entire clerical work force was actively engaged in seeking employment elsewhere. 
Personnel transfers and resignations caused severe clerical shortages in all eiei lents of the 
Center, with the resultant production lag. The assigned space was inadequate for FSTC 
operations and the loss of a full-time library capability caused slippages in milestone 
production dates. 



11 



Planning for the move to Charlottesville was initiated immediately after closing in Building 
T-7. The experience so recently gained proved valuable in the preparation of timetables and 
moving plans. The personnel turbulence was a major obstacle to overcome; however, 
Charlottesville proved a good source for replenishing the almost non-existent clerical force. 
The DHEW agency moving from Charlottesville left many clerical employees who did not 
move. During May, FSTC supervisors were sent to Charlottesville to select eligible 
employees, and eight employees hired in Charlottesville agreed to work in the Washington 
area until FSTC moved. For the most part, the 75 employees hired by FSTC had been in 
higher grades than FSTC was able to offer. The DHEW personnel were highly capable and 
well trained, although not familiar with Army clerical procedures. A course of instruction in 
Army clerical procedures was conducted prior to the move, and the personnel reported to 
their new assignments with a better understanding of Army procedures. During the 4th 
quarter of the fiscal year the trade-off in the clerical workforce (104%) proved to be a major 
asset when the capabilities of these new personnel were tested during a crash program to 
complete the FY 71 Production Schedule. 

AMC Headquarters provided assistance to the Civilian Personnel Office in handling 
resignations, movement orders, recruitment actions, etc. Personnel making the move with 
FSTC began taking TDY trips to Charlottesville, Virginia, to look for housing, and the 
movement committee spent many hours finalizing the plans for the move. 

The actual move to Charlottesville commenced in mid-August. The Foreign Science and 
Technology Center officially opened at Charlottesville at 0001 hours, 24 August 1970. The 
move was made around the clock, and very few unexpected disruptions occurred, reflecting 
great credit on the movement committee. FSTC continued to operate throughout the move 
although at obviously reduced productivity. As the result of the move, the Foreign Science 
and Technology Center's Approved Operating Budget was raised from $6,839,000 to 
$8,117,683-an overall increase of Si, 278,683 for the fiscal year. 

For the first time the Foreign Science and Technology Center was required to assume 
responsibility for housekeeping tasks heretofore assumed by other agencies in the 
Washington, DC area. The Administrative Services Office was reorganized to handle 
expansive supply responsibility, travel requirements, and other administrative matters. Also, 
a Community Relations Officer was appointed. 

For the most part the 202 employees who elected to move to Charlottesville found the 
environment a welcome change from the Washington, DC area. The Federal Office Building 
was a first class facility located in downtown Charlottesville. Parking, a major problem in 
DC, was plentiful and the view of the hills surrounding the building was superb. Working 
conditions had improved 10-fold over the Munitions Building and Building T-7. Security 
again met all standards 

12 



During the ensuing period of adjustment, Colonel Stevens announced two primary 
objectives for the Center. First, recruitment of personnel would be aimed at quality rather 
than quantity. Existing professional vacancies created by the move would be filled by the 
best qualified personnel. Secondly the Center would undergo a major reorganization to 
provide a greater capability for responding to the systems approach to modern military 
weaponry. This reorganization would place all production divisions under a single 
directorate, with some shifting of functions, and split the Research and Documentation 
Division into two divisions. A concept plan was submitted to AMC Headquarters for 
approval in September 1971. After a considerable delay, approval was received and FSTC 
proceeded to develop an MTDA. The TDA was submitted in February 1971 and approved 
by AMC Headquarters in April 1971 

By early 1971 it became apparent that the disruption caused by the two moves in 1970 
created a serious lag in production. Colonel Stevens initiated a maximum effort program, 
authorizing temporary shifting of personnel and the use of overtime in an effort to complete 
the FY 71 production program as scheduled. By 30 June 1971, 99% of the scheduled 
products had either been disseminated or were at the printer. FSTC had published 90 
"hardcover" studies-of 204 scheduled products. In FY 70 only 50 "hardcover" studies 
were published but a whopping total of 3804 "unscheduled, quick reaction" tasks were 
received. In FY 71, 2534 unscheduled quick reaction tasks were published. 

In May 1971 FSTC underwent a manpower management survey of the new organization. 
While the organization was not changed, some spaces were lost. At the close of FY 71 the 
Foreign Science and Technology Center had an authorized civilian employee strength of 
437. 



13 
(Reverse Blank) 



CHAPTER VI - FY 1972 and FY 1973 

An FSTC employee received a Research and Development Award. A new commander was 
appointed. The .' ) facility was finally established 

in Charlottesville. Extensive orientations were provided throughout AMC to explain how 
FSTC can provide scientific and technical intelligence support to assist in R&D programs. 
DOD Central Information Reference and Control (CIRC) systems were implemented. 
Authority to establish an Army field printing plant was received, and a new division was 
established at Aberdeen Proving Ground. 

An FSTC employee, Mr. Charles G. Huie, was presented a Certificate of Achievement Award 
in recognition of the Research and Development Award received for technical achievement 
that led to the development of the US Army ribbon bridge. From his work Mr. Huie gleaned 
that the Soviets had developed a new tactical floating bridge that could be erected at a speed 
ten times faster than the US Army could erect their tactical bridge, thus giving the Soviets a 
decided edge in gap crossing capabilities. Through Mr. Huie's efforts in assembling, 
evaluating, and presenting the various pieces of intelligence data, the US Army was able to 
produce a similar bridge by reverse engineering. This effort saved between $50 and 
$55 million US R&D funds. Mr. Huie was the first analyst in the entire Intelligence 
Community to receive this award. 

On 1 July 1972 Colonel Robert A. J. Dyer replaced Colonel Garth Stevens as the 
Commander of FSTC Colonel Dyer had been involved with the FSTC operation in his 
capacity as Chief, Foreign Science and Technology Office, RD&E Directorate, 
Headquarters, AMC. 

The major problem that had plagued FSTC since its move to Charlottesville in August 1970 
was the lack of an adequate _ facility. Interim 

arrangements consisted of a very small secure area which allowed the transport of 
material from Washington, DC, twice a week. Although this allowed some screening of 
material, it was still necessary to send analysts to Washington, DC, to screen and review the 
remaining material. After considerable delay a contract was finally negotiated to secure 
the basement and the first and second floors of the three story building called the annex. On 
5 February 1973 this facility was accepted as an facility and the facility opened. The 

ELINT and Special Intelligence Branches were moved from the Washington, DC area and 
after almost two and one-half years all resources originally destined to be stationed at 
Charlottesville were together. 



15 



Plans were finalized to conduct a series of orientations designed to explain how FSTC could 
support the R&D effort with scientific and technical intelligence. These orientations were 
presented to all major AMC R&D facilities by the Deputy Director, Dr. John A. Ord, a 
member of AMC Headquarters, and selected FSTC analysts with special knowledge 
applicable to the facility being oriented. 

The FY 72 and FY 73 production record was the best in history. For the first time 100% of 
the production goal was achieved for both years. Scheduled production increased- from 204 
products in FY 71 to 297 in FY 72 and to 310 in FY 73. Unscheduled, quick reaction tasks 
increased from 2534 in FY 71 to 2761 in FY 72 and 2918 in FY 73. Briefings stayed 
relatively constant with 443 in FY 71, 447 in FY 72 and 480 in FY 73. The number of 
visitors to FSTC* decreased from 200 in FY 71, to 190 in FY 72, and 180 in FY 73. 

There was a major shift in FSTC information services. Primary emphasis was placed on the 
DOD CIRC system operated by the US Air Force Foreign Technology Division, Air Force 
Systems Command, a sister agency of FSTC. All qualified raw and finished Army scientific 
and technical intelligence documents are put into the system by FSTC, who also provides 
current awareness and retrospective subject searches. This system disseminates, stores, and 
retrieves scientific and technical information. 

In FY 72, the Field Support Division was formed. Resources from the CONUS Scientific 
and Technical Information Team and the former foreign Technical Intelligence Office, 
Aberdeen Proving Ground (Garrison), were utilized to man this division, which was charged 
with the handling, storage, and disposition of DARCOM foreign materiel. 

The authorized strength was reduced by five officer and five civilian spaces in FY 72; 
however, a gain of 21 civilian spaces occurred in FY 73. In FY 72, the quality of the 
workforce was upgraded by the addition of 12 University of Virginia professors and 
associate professors who were hired as consultants to assist in researching highly specialized 
scientific and technical areas not covered by onboard analysts. 

A June 1973 manpower survey verified the authorized strength of 47 military and 453 
civilian spaces. 



16 



CHAPTER VH - FY 1974 and FY 1975 

An influx of visitors, the Middle East War, and requests for S&Tl briefings highlighted this 
period- The onboard and TDA average grade was reduced to 9.20. Travel restrictions 
curtailed external briefings considerably, and an Army field printing plant established. 

The number of briefings presented increased from 480 in FY 73 to 950 in FY 74, and a 
program was started to microfiche all approved briefings to satisfy the many requests that 
could not be honored by personal briefings. This program became viable in .FY 75 when 
severe limitations were placed on travel funds. Only 275 briefings were presented during this 
fiscal year, these mostly in the Washington, DC and surrounding area. 

The number of visitors to FSTC increased from 180 in FY' 73 to 360 in FY 74 and 508 in 
FY 75. This increase was directly attributable to the Middle East War. The Field Support 
Division, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, received 1898 visitors in FY 74 and 817 in FY 75. 
These visits were in groups of from 3 to 20 to view equipment. 

The publication of scheduled products dropped from 310 in FY 73 to 213 in FY 74 and 
increased to 255 in FY 75. Unscheduled, quick reaction tasks increased from 2918 in FY 73 
to 3037 in FY 74 and decreased to 2893 in FY 75. Despite the increase in requests for 
briefings and the increase in the number of visitors to FSTC, the completion record for 
scheduled production was 99% for both fiscal years. 

In July 1974 FSTC was directed to reduce the TDA average grade to the onboard goal of 
9.20. To accomplish this, it was necessary to reorganize some of the divisions in the 
Intelligence Production Directorate from three to two branches. In addition, it was 
necessary to downgrade many GS-12 and GS-11 analytical positions to the GS-09 and GS-07 
levels to meet the average grade conditions established by AMC. This degradation of 
analytical grades, which forced many below the journeyman level of GS-11, did not improve 
the quality of the workforce. By December 1974 FSTC had reduced the TDA and onboard 
average grade to the 9.20 goal. 

An influx of Arabic documents to be translated created a decided increase in the workload 
of the translators. Three Arabic translators were hired on an overhire basis to augment the 
translator staff. At the end of this period an estimated 2 to 3 more years will be required to 
eliminate the backlog. 

In March 1974 the first edition of the FSTC Library Index of Publications (FLIP) Vol I, 
Studies, was published. In 1975 this volume was republished along with FLIP Vol II, 
Exploitation Reports. 



17 



In May 1974 the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) On-Linc Terminal was installed in 
the library. This secure system provides access to some 1,000,000 technical reports covering 
completed research and development, the work unit file for on-going research projects, and 
the program planning file. Most of the translations produced by FSTC and the US Air Force 
Foreign Technology Division are input to DDC and are available through the on-line system. 

In December 1974 a project was started to enter all bibliographical data into the computer 
and produce computer indexes, rather than producing 4x6 catalog cards on the MTST. By 
May 1975 programming and data entry had progressed to the point that production of 4x6 
catalog cards ceased and the Library began receiving computer-produced indexes by key 
word, author, personality, facility, document, and accession number. 

In March 1975 a punchcard-based accession list 

was started to provide some access to this materiel before documents were available 
through the CIRC system and to provide access to other documentation that cannot be put 
into CIRC. 

In May 1975 the library card-catalog was automated with computer printed indexes by key 
word, author, facility, report, and accession number. 

At the end of FY 75 the Library established on-line access through commercial services to 
data bases such as Chemical Abstracts, Physics Abstracts, Engineering Index, Science 
Citation Index, and the files of the National Technical Information Service. This greatly 
improved our sources of ■ scientific and technical data and supplemented data 

available throuch CIRC. 

In FY 75 the FSTC Army field printing plant was finally established. This made possible a 
considerable increase in printing production and a dramatic reduction in the length of the 
publishing cycle from the author's draft manuscript to finished publication. 

Personnel strength remained fairly constant during this period. Four officer spaces were 
withdrawn as part of the Army's 16 division build-up. A manpower survey was conducted in 
June 1975 and the authorized strength was again verified. 



18 



CHAPTER VHI - FY 1976, FY 197T and FY 1977 

Successful accomplishment of production goals continued to be achieved. A new 
commander was appointed. A new casking concept was introduced. A new FSTC computer 
simulation of radar impacted on Army, Navy, and Air Force R&D. Stringent average grade 
goals were established. FSTC reorganized. 

Scheduled production goals during this period continued to range at 99% completion. 
During FY 76 227 scheduled products were published and 276 were published during 
FY 7T and FY 77. Unscheduled products, direct support tasks, and quick reaction 
production ranged from 2738 to 3106 in FY 7T and FY 77. Scientific and Technical 
Intelligence briefings increased from an all-time low of 275 in FY 75 to 673 in FY 76 and 
477 in FY IT and FY 77. Visitors, including many general or flag rank officers, dropped 
from 508 in FY 75 to 288 in FY 76 and then increased to 922 in FY 7T and FY 77. 

On 16 July 1976 Colonel Claire Reeder replaced Colonel Robert Dyer as the Commander. 

During FY 76 a new tasking concept, generic study, was introduced. This concept requires 
projections for a 20-year life cycle of equipment or systems, as opposed to the former 
requirement of only ten years. Because this new concept requires more in-depth analytical 
expertise and resources, Colonel Reeder requested that Headquarters, DARCOM conduct a 
manpower survey to assist in identifying additional manpower requirements. This survey 
was conducted in April 1977, and the requirement for an additional 57 civilians was 
established. This finding was forwarded to the Department of the Army, but could not be 
honored due to a cutback in the General Defense Intelligence Program resources (GDIP). 

During the period a computer model of radar systems, developed at FSTC to aid 
vulnerability analysis of foreign equipment, produced results not available by other means. 
The impact of this model on Army, Navy, and Air Force research and development 
programs ran into the hundreds of millions of dollars. 

In FY 77 FSTC agreed not to exceed an on-board average grade of 9.13 while maintaining a 
TDA average grade of 9.35. This action created some problems, particularly with the FSTC 
promotion program. In addition to the average grade limitation, a goal was set to limit to 86 
the number of positions at GS-13 and above in FSTC and the two oversea teams under the 
operational control of FSTC. To achieve the average grade and high-grade goals and to 
realign resources toward the new generic threat tasking, a reorganization was undertaken. 
Because most of the reorganization affected the Intelligence Production Directorate, in 
June 1977 the six division chiefs assembled at the Federal Executive Institute, located in 



19 



Charlottesville, VA, and devised the reorganization with which FSTC concluded FY 77 (see 
As the result of this reorganization one GS-15 and three GS-14 positions were 
converted to lower grade-:. In addition, the existing six production divisions were dissolved 
and were reconstituted into five new divisions shown in . This 

reorganization provided not only for the reduction of senior-level positions and the average 
grade restrictions, but also permitted a more efficient and cohesive realignment of functions 
to obtain the maximum utilization of available resources. On the support side of the house, 
the former Foreign Activities Division was redesignated the Special Requirements Division 
and all FSTC elements dealing with human, signal, and photographic intelligence were 
combined in this single organizational entity. As a result, intelligence information reaching 
FSTC should improve. 

In June 1976 Headquarters, DARCOM transferred the Foreign Materiel Program (FMP) to 
FSTC and provided one officer and two civilian spaces to support this function. Initially this 
element was placed with the command group, but experience indicated that, in the interest 
of economy and efficiency, the Foreign Materiel Program Officer should be located directly 
in the Technical Services Directorate. The Foreign Materiel Branch, Foreign Activities 
Division, was converted to the Foreign Materiel Program Office under the operational 
control of the FMP officer, who establishes policy and provides guidance. This move was 
effective 14 February 1977. 

At the start of this period FSTC began to investigate word processing, a concept of 
centralized typing and final-copy preparation with advanced electronic equipment. This is 
designed to save time and increase efficiency in preparing drafts and final copy of scientific 
and technical intelligence studies. The National Archives and Records Service conducted a 
detailed feasibility study in February and March 1976, and again in July 1977. FSTC 
received the Adjutant General's approval and began testing equipment in September 1977, 
to continue through March 1978. 

A full-time Equal Employment Opportunity Office (EEO) was established reporting directly 
to the Commander. A full-time EEOO was hired and three EEO counselors were selected 
from the FSTC workforce on an additional-duty basis. The EEO Committee developed a 
charter in the fall of 1976, and the first Federal Women's Day was held in January 1977. 

In February 1976, a secure CIRC terminal was added to expand the library's on-line 
services. Access to commercially available open-literature data banks was expanded and a 
high speed CRT terminal-printer was installed on the unclassified CIRC system. 



20 



In May 1976, with the addition of the Data 360 data entry software on the computer, the 
Acquisition and Processing Branch began to enter all CIRC data by computer terminal, a 
command objective for FY 76. Data tapes produced from that time were on computer tapes 
rather than MTST. FSTC was the first CIRC contributor to change from MTST tape to 
computer tape entry for the CIRC system. 

• 

In December 1976, the Library automated card catalog was produced on computer output 
microfiche (COM) , with access through a microfiche retrieval unit. A video tape player was 
added to the library, along with access to several collection programs providing video tapes. 
As FY 77 ended, a DIAOLS on-line secure terminal was added to the ever-growing list of 
on-line retrieval services. 



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